Black Andean Toad (Atelopus ignescens), FMNH catalogue no. 199941. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. Conservation status: extinct. Not recorded since 1988, extensive searches over the last fifteen years have failed to locate this species in its humid forest habitat in the Andes of Ecuador at elevations of 3000-4000 feet. The causes of extinction are not known but an outbreak of the fungal disease chytridiomycosis, which has been responsible for amphibian population declines in other parts of the world (and particularly among high-elevation populations of the Atelopus species) seems the likely cause of the mid-1980s crash of populations that were abundant.