The Liujiaxia (Gorge) Reservoir. China is both fortunate and ill-fated by the forces of its seven major rivers, its powerful but stretched water resources produce great agricultural bounty but historically have also caused devastating floods. Ever since irrigation was fully developed in ancient China, river management (shui zheng in Chinese) has been designated as an important function of governance, and it has played a crucial role in the lives of ordinary people. A fundamental difference of river management in pre-communist China and thereafter is the construction of large hydroelectric dams. In 1949 the country had no more than 40 small hydroelectric dams and only a handful of large-scale reservoirs. By 1985, the state-organised drives for electricity, irrigation, and flood control succeeded in building 70,000 dams and 80,000 reservoirs, and of these nearly 300 were big hydroelectric dams and 340 were large-scale reservoirs. Today, at a conservative estimate, these hydro-projects have resulted in the relocation of at least 10 million people.